Growing Plants in Minecraft



Many types of plant require Farmland to grow on. Farmland is made by working on grass or dirt blocks with a hoe. Farmland looks similar to dirt, but the block isn’t quite as tall.

farmland in minecraft

Farmland that remains unplanted for too long, or that is jumped on (by players or mobs) will revert to dirt.


Farmland within 4 blocks of water will become irrigated (or “hydrated”. Most crops grow better on irrigated farmland than on dry.


Most crops need light to grow. If you plant them outdoors, they will grow during the day, but if you add additional light they will grow at night too.

Indoors or underground, crops will only grow if you provide artificial light for them.

Bone Meal

Many crops can be fertilised with Bone Meal to make them grow faster. Bone Meal is made from skeleton bones, and when you right click to apply it to your crop there is a chance of it growing.



Wheat is probably the first crop you will grow.

wheat seeds


First you will need seeds — you can get these by breaking blocks of long grass. You will also get more seeds when you harvest your wheat, so you only need a few to start with.

Planting your first crop

First make a hoe:

crafting: hoe

…and prepare some ground next to some water. Plant your seeds and wait for them to grow. Place a torch next to your crops so that they keep growing at night and are ready sooner.

first wheat

Your first wheat farm will probably look like this!

If you can find some bones, make Bone Meal and fertilise your crops. Two applications will usually ripen your wheat fully. If not, you’ll have to wait.

It’s ready when it turns golden:

wheat growth

When you harvest your wheat, you will get the wheat item (for cooking or feeding to sheep and cows) plus more seeds than you started with. You will be able to plant a bigger farm next time!

Larger fields

One block of water will irrigate 80 blocks of farmland:

TIP: place a lily pad on the water so you don’t fall in when harvesting and replanting your wheat.

TIP: you can harvest wheat more quickly by pouring water over your field. Re-planting still has to be done block by block, though.

Melons and Pumpkins

Large Melon Farm

Melons are a useful food source, and are used in brewing potions. Pumpkins are not edible, but can be worn as a helmet for protection against Endermen. Pumpkins are also used for crafting Jack’o’Lanterns, a decorative lighting fixture, and snow golems and iron golems


Melon and pumpkin seeds can both be found in chests in dungeons and abandoned mine shafts. Pumpkins can also sometimes be found growing wild and melon seeds might be available from NPC villagers.

Melon seeds and pumpkin seeds can be crafted from melon slices and pumpkins.


Seeds must be planted on farmland , preferably irrigated. They will then grow into a pumpkin or melon plant, taking 10–30 minutes to do so. When the plant is mature pumpkin or melon will appear on a farmland, dirt or grass block next to the plant.

  • speed up the growth of the plants by applying bonemeal.
  • while the seed must be planted on farmland, the fruit will appear on dirt, farmland or grass.
  • after harvesting, the plant ill produce another fruit, every 1–30 minutes.
  • the plant can only have one fruit at a time.
  • an axe is the best tool for harvesting pumpkins, anything will do for melons.

Farm Layouts

There are lots of ways to lay out your farms; here are two suggestions:

Melon and Pumpkin Farms

Lily Pads

melon farm lily pads

Placing lily pads on top of any water in your farm will stop melon slices falling in there.

Carrots and Potatoes

Potatoes and Carrots

Carrots and potatoes are sometimes dropped by zombies; they can also be found in NPC villages.

Growing them is a lot like growing wheat, except there are no seeds. Plant carrots or potatoes in farmland, preferably hydrated, and wait. Bonemeal will speed up the process. When you harvest your crops, you will get back more than you originally planted.

Potatoes and carrots can both be eaten raw, however it is better to bake potatoes in a furnace first.



Beetroot is another crop that can be found growing in villages. When you harvest beetroot, you will get both Beetroot and Beetroot Seeds, which can be replanted.

Beetroot can be eaten raw, or made into Beetroot Soup. It can also be made into Rose Red dye.

Cocoa Beans


Cocoa beans can be found in dungeon chests, or growing on trees in the jungle. You can farm them by planting the beans on the side of a Jungle Wood log (either use a live tree or take a piece of wood from the tree and put it wherever you like. Just like other plants, they will grow through several stages, and once they are ripe, you can harvest them.

cocoa bean farm

Nether Wart

nether wart

Nether Wart can only be found in Nether Fortresses, but once you have some, you can grow it anywhere. Plant it in Soul Sand, wait for it to grow, and harvest it when fully grown.

It doesn’t need light, but it isn’t speeded up by bone meal and you can only grow it in soul sand, not regular dirt.


Mushrooms aren’t really plants, of course, and nor can they be farmed easily, but they are a great source of food early in the game and have their own page.